PCI,First Press Council, & Second Press Council
Press Council of India:-
the press council is a statutory body and autonomous body which formulates guidelines and code of conduct for the press which is followed by members of the press voluntarily. It has the power of the Civil Court. The first press council was initiated by Sweden.
The Press Council of India was first set up in the year 1966 by the Parliament on the recommendations of the First Press Commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaining and improving the standards of press in India. The present Council functions under the Press Council Act, 1978. It is a statutory, quasi-judicial authority functioning as a watchdog of the press, for the press and by the press. It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
In India, it first initiated on November 1966 to 1st January 1976, under the press council Act 1965. It had been wound due to the emergency regime. It reconstituted in 1979, under the new press council Act 1978. J.R Mudholkar was the first chairman of PCI.
The council has a Chairman-traditionally a retired supreme court judge, and 28 additional members of which 20 are members of media, nominated by newspapers, T.V channels and other outlets operating in India. In 28 members of the council 5 are the members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha of Indian Parliament. The term of members and chairman of the press council has 3 years. Retiring member is eligible for re-nomination but not more than one year.
The press council of India accepts complaints against and by the press matters related to journalist or media organization’s ethical failure. The press council can investigate and issue a report, it also abolished, warn and censored those finds at fault but do not have power do put penalty or enforce any individual journalist or organization. The proceedings of the press council should be taken place with regard to the judicial hearing under Section 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code. On 21st July 2006 press council censored three newspaper – Times of India ( Delhi & Pune), Mid Day ( Mumbai), and Punjab Kesari ( Delhi).
First press commission:-
the first press commission of India was formed under the chairmanship of G.S Rajadhyaksha on 23rd September 1952 by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. There were 11 working group members in The first press commission and few members are as follows-
- CP Ramaswami Aiyar
- Zakir Hussain
- VKRV Rao
- PH Patwardhan
- Chalapathi Rau
First press commission submitted its report in 1954 in two parts. Part I -constitutes a massive report and recommendations. Part ii– a detailed study of the history and development of Journalism in India. It was researched and written up by J.Natrajan, the editor of the Tribune and also a member of the committee.
Recommendations of the press Commission:-
- The important recommendation of the commission was the setting up of a statutory press commission at the national level.
- To protect the freedom of the press and high standards of the journalism, a Press council should be established.
Note- the press council of India was established on July 4th, 1966 which started functioning from November 16 ( on this date, National Press Day is celebrated) 1966.
- Establishment of Registrar of Newspaper for India. It was appointed in 1956.
- Price page schedule should be introduced. It was accepted in 1956.
- A press consultative committee should be constituted for maintaining the cordial relationship between the government and the press. It was accepted on 22nd September 1962.
- Working journalist Act should be implemented.
- For protecting the main principles of the freedom of press and to help the newspapers against monopolistic tendencies, a newspaper financial corporation should be constituted. It was accepted on 4th December 1970.
Second press commission:-
it was set up in 29th May 1978. To begin with Justice P.K Goswamichaired the commission. The second press commission was re-announced on January 1980 and reorganized in April 1980. It submitted its report on April 1982. The new chairman was Justice K.K Matthew.
The main recommendations are:-
- An attempt should be made to establish a cordial relation between the government and the press.
- For the development of small and medium newspaper, there should be the establishment of a newspaper development commission.
- Newspaper industries should be separated from industries and commercial interest.
- There should be the appointment of board of trustees between editors and proprieties of the newspaper.
- Price and page schedule should be introduced.
- There should be fixed proportion of news and advertisements in small, medium and big newspaper.
- Newspaper industries should be relieved from the impact of foreign capital.
- No predictions should be published in newspapers and magazines.
- The misuse of the image of advertisements should be discontinued.
- Jahnavi (21st June 2018). all you need to know about the press council of India. Ipleaders. https://blog.ipleaders.in/press-council-india/
- Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Press_Council_of_India
- Introduction, (20th August 2019), Press Council of India. http://presscouncil.nic.in/Content/1_1_Introduction.aspx
- Mass Communication & Journalism, (19th April 2010), https://netjrfmasscomm.blogspot.com/2010/04/trace-history-of-first-and-second-press.html