In 1960, Russel Colley propounded a new concept regarding advertising. DAGMAR is an abbreviation for “Defining Advertising Goals to measure Advertising Results”. Colley has defined advertising as : a paid mass communication, the ultimate purpose of which is to impart information, develop attitude, and induce action beneficial to the advertiser, generally the sale of a product”.

DAGMAR is a marketing tool to compute the result of an advertising campaign. According to this approach, every purchase encounters four steps; Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, and Action. DAGMAR method is an established technique of creating effective advertising.


Functions of Advertising:-

  1. Registering the brand name.
  2. Reminding the brand name.
  3. Reinforcing the brand name.
  4. Creating brand differentiation.
  5. Creating brand preference.
  6. Creating brand loyalty.
  7. Creating a brand image.
  8. Rein forcing brand image.
  9. Changing a brand image.

Colley stated important features for obtaining objectives.

  • Advertising objectives muct be specific and measurable communication task.
  • Must specify the target audience.
  • Must specify desirable change against which results can be measured.
  • Must specify a time period for achieving goals.

Under DAGMAR Approach, communication objectives are based on hierarchy of effect model divide into four stages-


  • Awareness– it is the initial stage that aware people about the Brand Product. It is a fundamental task of the campaign to aware its consumer about the product. Awareness has to be created, developed, refined and maintained according to the characteristics of the market and the scenario of the organization at any given point of time.
  • Comprehension- at this stage consumer understand the benefits of the products. Example: In an attempt to persuade people to budge for a new toothpaste brand, it may be necessary to compare the product with other toothpaste brands, and provide an additional usage benefit, such as more effective than other toothpaste because it contains salt or that this particular toothpaste is a vegetarian toothpaste, which will, in turn, attract more customers.
  • Conviction- customer evaluates the different products and plan to buy a particular product. At this activity the job of Advertising is to mould the audience beliefs and persuade them to buy their product. Example: Thumbs up featured the incentive of social acceptance as “grown up”. It implied that those who preferred other soft drinks were kids.
  • Action- this is the last step of any advertising to tale people at this stage so that they can buy their product positively.


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