Four Models of PR

 Professor Todd Hunt and James E. Gruning developed the four models of Public Relation in 1984 that describes the sectors diverse management and organizational practices. This model serves guidelines to design a Programme and strategic planning for PR campaigning.

 Four models of Public Relations

Model Type of Communication Characteristics

Press Agent/

Publicity Model

One-Way Communication

This is a thematic one way communication model. Uses half-truth, manipulation to persuade target audience. They want to change audience thoughts according to organisational desire.

Public Information Model

One-Way Communication

PR acts as a Journalists. This is also a one-way communication. Uses press releases to disseminate information.

Two-Way Asymmetrical Model

Two-Way Communication

Presents more scientific persuasive way to communicating with the key audience. It is considered as Imbalanced model.

Two-Way Symmetrical Model

Two-Way Communication

Promote mutual understanding between organisation and its public. This is a most Ethical model.

1. Press Agent/ Publicity Model: Press Agent or Publicity Model is also known as Barnum Model. This model follows one-way communication from sender to receiver where sender is not much concerned about receiver’s feedback. This model talks about the importance of PR strategies through PR practitioners. PR experts manipulates the idea and thoughts of the key audience, shareholders, customers, inventors, investors, and other associated member of an organization. Their main focus is on to make their organisation’s image good in front of the public.

press agent model PR

They manipulate public according to the desire of the company. They make creative stories, thoughts, ideas to change the thinking of the public towards their makings and brands.

2. Public Information Model: Public Information Model flows from the Sender (Organization) to Receiver (Public, Target Audience, Employees). This model gives more importance on maintaining the image or goodwill of an organisation. PR experts disseminates useful information to the target audience. In this regard PR experts must be creative so that they can attract people attention towards their brands, services or product.PR experts often depends on Press Releases and News releases or even directly with mainstream media for circulating information to key audience.

public information model

3. Two- Way Asymmetrical Model: two- way asymmetrical model is a two-way communication but it is imbalanced in nature. This model is developed by Edward Louis Bernys. Through this model PR experts tries to influence Key people to think and act in a certain way as desired by their organization. They must do not think about the reaction of the Shareholders, Customers or their Public. They do not even put their more efforts on researches. This model particular popular in Advertising and Consumer marketing. It more uses Propaganda technique.

asymatrical model

4. Two- way symmetrical model: Two- Way Symmetrical model suggest that PR practitioner’s serve its public as a Liaison rather than a persuader. This model presents an ideal way of communication between an organisation and its public. It is a balanced in nature. This model benefits both the parties. This is an ethical model. Conflicts and misunderstanding can be resolved by mutual discussion and talk between bot the parties in more desired form. The feedback of the public (shareholders, investors, inventors, customers, etc.) also taken into consideration.

symatrical model



  1. Management Study Guide,
  2. PressBooks,



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