Television experiment was first initiated in 1920 in the USA and Europe. After a few years of this experiment, the Iconoscope (the electric television tube) was invented in 1923. Iconoscope was the first video camera tube that has been used in early television camera’s. it was invented by Vladimir K. Zworykin. He also invented Kinescope or picture tube (it is known as Telerecording in Britain) that records a television program on motion picture film. This term refers to the Cathode Ray tube used in a television receiver discovered by Julius Plucker and Johann Wilhelm Hittorf. Cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube used to display images.
The satellite communication has begun in 1962 with the launch of Intelsat also known as the Early Bird. It was the first commercial communication satellite launched April 6th, 1965. It was built by space and communication group of Hughes Aircraft Company ( now it became Boeing satellite system).
The arrival of Television in India :
On September 15th, 1959, the Delhi Television Centre went on air. It was an experiment service, a UNESCO pilot project. From August 1965 entertainment and information program has begun. Germany’s Federal Republic helped to build Production studio.
- Krishi Darshan program was began in January 1967.
- The Bombay center was opened in 1972.
- Calcutta, Madras, and Lucknow centers were opened in 1975.
- January 1st, 1976 commercials came to be telecast at all the centers.
- In 1976 television delinked from AIR and became Doordarshan.
- In 1975, SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) an experimental satellite communication was launched in India. An American satellite has borrowed for one year (AT 5-6).
- Color Television came in India in 1982.
- Early 90’s the arrival of Star TV from Hong Kong.
- The DTH (Direct To Home ) service launched by Doordarshan in 2003.
- In 2007 conditional Access System (CAS) had become obligatory for the cable TV households in Delhi by TRAI ( Telecom Regulatory Authority of India ).
- CAS means that households could pay for those channels they chose to watch.
- HITS ( Headed- In- The- Sky ) is another delivery mode of television content. It delivers satellite channels to the cable operators through a HITS.
- HDTV, mobile TV can also be provided by HITS.
Distribution technologies for TV content:-
- Terrestrial TV
- Cable and Satellite
- CAS ( Conditional Access System)
- DTH (Direct To Home)
- HITS ( Headend in the Sky )
- IPTV ( Internet Protocol TV )
- HDTV ( High Definition TV )
- The Internet
- Mobile Telephones
- Digital Terrestrial Television
TV ( DD) services :
- 1965- News broadcasting started.
- 1976- business service started ( commercial service)
- 15th August 1982- National broadcasting started.
- 23rd February 1987- morning transmission started.
- 26th January 1989 – afternoon broadcasting started.
- 10th July 1999- news broadcasting every hour has been started.
- 2003- DD news started in the place of DD Metro. DD Metro has been started in 1984.
- 1995- DD started its international channel called DD World. IN 2002 it has been changed into DD India.
- 15th August 1993 – music, sports, Business news, and current affairs channel has been started.
- 2004- digital broadcasting of all DD channels.
- 26th January 2002- Prasar Bharti started DD Bharti.